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gJapan is a country of social tensionscc.
gThe emotional instability (of Japan) in times of stress or crisis, the unbridled brutality of Japanese troops let loose upon the peaceful populations of Asiatic countries, bear evidence of a diseased society where healthy outlets for self-expression, a rational ambition, or a critical intellect are effectively damnedcc..

gThe social history of Japan illustrates how the Japanese violently reached against crushing social restrictions and inhibitions by abandoning themselves to a frenzy which periodically swept throughout the centers of population in the Tokugawa era (1605) and more recently in 1923, during the frenzy riots which followed the devastating fire and earthquake in the Tokyo districtcch The above quotations were taken from an article, titled gMass Hysteria in Japan,h recently published in the gFar Eastern Survey, American Council of the Institute of Pacific Relations,h It was written by E. Herbert Norman, noted authority on Japan, and author of gJapanfs Emergence as a Modern State.h

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In another part of this article he points out that gone need not be a Freudian to imagine what neurosis, what febrile passions are concealed behind the glacial calm of many Japanesecc.
He then turns to debunking the myth of a gstolid emotionally restrained and stoic Japan as the prime characteristic of Japanese social behavior.h He stresses that gthese outward manifestations of a social behavior do not explain the social reasons sore these restraints, and might not be so much temperment habit as a deliberately cultivated behavior pattern assumed like camouflage for self-protection.hcc.

In still another part of his articles he gives us a tipoff for a psychological Warfare potential that might be used not only to activate this panic complex among the mob but might be capable of bringing about a hysterical social condition which would turn Japan from a well regimented state into a mob more interested in individual survival than state survival.

Norman states further; gToday with contemporary Japan subject to the will of the political police, the tight social regimentation of the neighborhood groups, the grinding economic explanation, the student propaganda of chauvinism, and the shinto superstition, are placing heavier burdens on the Japanese people than they (Page 3) experienced under the stern rule of the feudal Bakufu. As the military and political machine of Japanese imperialism begins to crack under the hammer blows of its enemies, it is not improbable that violent outbursts of mass hysteria will flare up here and there.h Given these facts, it now is apparent that it is timely that we step up our Psychological Warfare against the Japanese homeland. This should feature material that would tighten the frustration ring around the Japanese people.

Already there is enough evidence leaking out from the Japanese radio broadcasts, indicating that the major morale government operation is the channeling of this frustration complex. This was evident with the collapse of two cabinets within the period of the war, which came as an appeasement of the mass, when Saipan fell and Okinawa was invaded. The real purpose behind these moves was to supply new hope for growing frustration. The method was to discard a once believed infallible leader for another who could be propagandized as a true infallible one. But it goes without saying that not even the Japanese people can continue to be fooled by the replacement of an infallible who turns out to be fallible, world end.

There is already increasing evidence of a drop in the Japanese morals barometer. This was reflected in the first public address of Premier Suzuki, after the fall (Page 4) of the Koiso cabinet, following the invasion of Okinawa. He addressed the graveness of the crisis now facing Japan, as the result of the invasion of Okinawa. How serious Japanese officialdom takes this U.S. move into the inner defense zone of Japan is revealed in a recent editorial in the Tokyo-Yomiuri-Hochi, voice of the militarist group. In this editorial it is admitted that the loss of Okinawa would leave Japan with gno hope of turning the course of the war. The loss of Okinawa would mean the collapse of the vanguards of Japan.h

Such editorial comments from an official newspaper like the Yomiuri-Hochi appears to indicate that the seeds of hysterical hear are already sprouting even if official sources.

This brings us to the point as to just how we might put enough pressure on this panic potential to turn it into an actuality, a mad hysteria among the mass of Japan.

This might be accomplished by a long-range strategic campaign in which we tie up the destruction of physical war with that of the forces of nature.

Such a psychological Warfare campaign would be designed to show that by scientific bombings of Japan, we intended to use the forces of nature to step up their annihilation.

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This poses the question: Scientifically can heavy bombings, pinpointed on known earthquake areas, bring about a calamitous condition within fault sections which would step up the expectancy and possibly bring about a calamitous earthquake in a selected area? The tactical purpose being to put out of production war industries in this area, or to neutralize as strong defense sector.

This question is partly answered by N. H. Heck, Assistant Director of the U.S. Coast Geodetic Survey, in his pamphlet gJapanese Earthquakes from the Military Viewpoint.h He states in part: gCan an Earthquake be set off by an explosion?h

gThis question has been asked several times, so it should receive a serious answer. All that could be applied is trigger force, and this can only advance and set the time for an earthquake which is about to occur. It is conceivable, however, that an explosion at exactly the right time and place might have the correct effect. It (the explosive) would have to be very large and it would be necessary to know where to place it, and the latter cannot be determined at all from outside Japanh cc..

When and where to drop this explosive message, (at the most timely hour) is the orux of the problem, he addresses.

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This problem, he adds, has been complicated by the loss of seismological listening stations at Manila, Shanghai, and Batavia. These stations, he points out, are needed to supply the data to forecast a possible gtrigger stress.h Some of the data needed would be geological changes within Japan itself and those covering concurrent minor earthquakes, which often anticipate a major earthquake. These statements, it is timely to report, were made before the recapture of Manila and the occupation by our forces of the Okinawa Islands, well within the zone of Japan proper.

It now appears as though they no longer hold valid, and that this job of collecting the needed data is now within the realm of possibility.

With the possibility of getting this data, now arises the question of where to place this large explosive charge. Professor P. Byerly of the Seismological Laboratory of the University of California, in an answer to this question, reduces the range of speculation as to time and location. In a letter to Dr. L. H. Adams of the Geophysical Laboratory, he states: c. gwe would have to get (bomb) within less than 5 miles of that place on the fault which is destined to break within a year, no help being offered it cc gand gc.. if we could get (bomb) within a mile of a point on a fault destined to break within 90 years we might set it off ch.

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Here again, the determination of the vulnerable faults is dependent upon the more specific data to be obtained from seismic listening posts.

The statements of these men, prominent scientists in their field, testify to the plausibility of gtriggeringh a potential earthquake condition by intensified and accurate bombings. This plausibility is further substantiated by actual tests conducted at the Palmer Physical Laboratory. Here, high explosive charges were studied with a view to their effect on these earthquake conditions.

It was the results of this study that brought the possibility of triggering a potential earthquake condition from the realm of fantasy to that of scientific plausibility.

With the knowledge of the possible effects of explosives, and the seismological data to be obtained from listening posts there appears a good possibility that we may be able to create a Psychological Warfare panic campaign well within this realm of scientific plausibility. And if it became known in Japan that we had placed scientific in strategic areas within the zone of Japan proper for working out a hypothetical plan to further harass Japan by creating earthquakes, another diabolical feature would be added to stir up the imagination and increase the panic hysteria of the Japanese people.

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Also, the knowledge of the pressure of these scientists at Manila and Okinawa, slipped into Japan proper by our agents in China, would not only give credence to such a diabolical plan among the mass of Japan but would act as a challenge to Japanfs scientists.

This diabolical plan would also add another dilemma for Japanese officials to meet. Such a plan, it becomes obvious, would neutralize the effectiveness of underground industries, put there to protect machinery and workers from ordinary surface bombings. It would not take much imagination on the part of the lowliest coolie to visualize himself buried alive, by such a man-made earthquakes. Add to this localized hysteria the fears of the mass of workers in above-ground industries, workers in shipyards, the fear of the mass of the great hydro-electrical dams turning their floods loose on the countrysides, and the general tension of their homes tumbling about their heads at any hour, and you have a PW formula for panic hysteria that cannot be duplicated by any type of physical warfare.

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To create a negative flux; that is a condition where the people of Japan are turned into a hysterical mob, no longer believing in any leadership from above, but more interested in individual survival than even state survival, which has lost its power of mystic leadership.

Our purpose being mainly to break the regimented state pattern and smash it an individual survival flux. This Psychological Warfare campaign, of course, should be timed to run concurrently with the intensification of the physical warfare against Japan. As this physical warfare increases in intensity it will create for us automatic Psychological Warfare wedges. We should be ready to take advantage of this to increase the psychological pressure on growing panic temperament (original: temperment) created by the intense physical destruction of Japan.


This may be accomplished by increasing the pressure on the natural panic complex of the Japanese people. Already are evident many signs that the frustration ring drawn around the people of Japan, is being tightened to the point where something is about to crack. Available (Page 10) historical data reveals Japan as a gcountry of social tensions,h and one which has several times in history violently socially exploded because of these social tensions.


Two outstanding factors have played a major historical role in creating social hysteria and panic among the Japanese; they are fire and earthquake. When these have occurred during times of great economic pressure, there has often followed social chaos. We know now that the economic factor is present; the fire factor is being supplied by our extensive bombing with ineedarises. There now remains but one other factor for us to utilize. This is the earthquake factor.


Seismologists reveal Japan to be a geological mine. The evidence of geological maps and the record of seismic disturbances bear witness to the unstable condition of the earthfs interior immediately beneath Japan. Harbored within this interior is a latent force of tremendous destructiveness. When triggered, this latent energy which has been accumulating over a period of years, it released in a recurrent earth-shaking wave. At spaced intervals throughout the history of Japan this mine has exploded with fierce intensity and shaken surface structures to the ground and cost the lives of millions.

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Scientists further reveal the plausibility of triggering this earthquake potential by intensified bombings. Through tests conducted in the physical laboratories of leading universities and institutions, a similarity between the normal triggering forces of nature and those which man can exert is established. These scientists, seismologists and physicists, have complied tables to show the effects of various sized bombs on this geological mine within which the explosives would have to be detonated in order to be effective.

Impetus is greatly added to the already established scientific plausibility of triggering this earthquake potential by the recent revelation of the atomic bomb. With a manifoldly greater amount of destructive force in a single atomic bomb the plausibility of triggering the earthquake potential is brought further toward the realm of practically.

This also posed the possibility that the explosive force of an atomic bomb may set up, deep within the earthquake blocks, a seismic wave, the result of radio activity set loose. This may expedite the trigger hour, or by itself increase the external pressures forcing the blocks to make a sudden adjustment in an attempt to recover their equilibrium

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On the basis of the scientific plausibility of triggering this earthquake potential by atomic and large scale intensified bombing lies the foundation for our psychological plan to combine, within the minds of the Japanese, the additional fear of earthquakes being caused by the radio-active destructiveness of the atomic bomb.


1) Magazine: The ground-work for all the media to be used would be a pseudo-scientific inserted in a counterfeit Japanese magazine. This article would purport to have originated with Japanese scientist and would contend that the prime purpose of the Allies, in further intensifying their bombings, is to bring about a calamitous earthquake. The article would then go on to raise arguments relative to the feasibility of triggering the home earthquake potential by heavy explosives, and, especially, the new atomic bomb. Further counterfeit articles, signed by individual Japanese seismologists, in crediting or denying the possibility of realizing this end, would keep the fear of earthquakes paramount in the minds of the Japanese people.
2) Leaflets would follow the appearance of the counterfeit articles and would give detailed instructions as to the precautionary measures to be taken in the event that the earthquake does occur. In these leaflets, the current (Page 13) air-raid regulations would be revised to incorporate new measures necessitated by the expected earthquake. These leaflets could be distributed in occupied territory by our agents in China, or dropped from B-29s.
3) Radio could be used if some method could broadcast by medium wave, directly into Japan, a series of broadcasts on a band counterfeiting and official Japanese radio broadcast. These programs by indirect subversion, would call to the attention of the people of Japan the need for preparing themselves to meet any earthquake which might result from intensive bombing by the Americans. It could also, by indirect subversion, call attention to the danger of underground industries , by detailing how Japanese officials are working out plans to safeguard all workers who are detailed to work in these underground plants.
4) Rumors could be circulated to the effect that the Americans are using islands off Iwo Jima and Okinawa as proving grounds for this theory; also, that the recently felt tremors, which occur constantly, were the direct effect of the last bombing by B-29s.
5) Counterfeit copies of letters alleged to have passed between members of the Imperial Earthquake Committee, commenting on the possible effects of heavy bombings on (Page 14) the potential earthquake conditions, could be left in strategic places, by agents, for the ready consumption and distribution by the Japanese people.


If we were once able to create this negative flux we would then be in the position to channel it into a positive flux. Such a negative flux by a natural reflex, always attempts to find a positive hope. This positive hope could be supplied by the appearance of an alleged gFree Japanh movement. The activities of this groups beamed into Japan by medium wave from Okinawa might be the medium for activating the liberal group in Japan, who could then offer a positive force for release from warfs frustrations.